Researchers have added fresh evidence that early exposure to vaccine-, bacterial- or microbiota-derived antigens has a dramatic effect on the diversity of antibodies an adult mammal will have to fight future infections by pathogens. This antibody diversity is called the clonal repertoire -- basically different single cells with distinct antibody potential that can multiply into a large clone of cells, all producing that distinct antibody.
A gene has been discovered that can naturally suppress the signs of Alzheimer's Disease in human brain cells. The scientists have also developed a new rapid drug-screening system for treatments that could potentially delay or prevent the disease.
A new study has shown that coral outplant survival is likely to drop below 50% if sea surface temperatures exceed 30.5 degrees Celsius and that survival rates can also be predicted by considering temperature conditions in the year prior to outplanting.
A new study warns that the last remaining habitat for several endangered bird species in Europe could reduce by up to 50 per cent in the next century as farmers convert land to more profitable crops and meet increased demand for products such as olive oil and wine.
A study examining the urban microclimatic impact of the 2019-20 Australian bushfires has uncovered how they affect local meteorological and air quality. Its findings could help understand the potential consequences of an increased rate and extension of bushfires, and especially regarding improving risk preparedness and coping strategies.
Measurements by the GRACE-FO satellite mission show a decline in water storage in Central Europe by up to 94 percent compared with seasonal fluctuations. The changes are so serious that a recovery within one year is not to be expected. The water shortage in the years 2018 and 2019 is thus the largest in the entire GRACE and GRACE-FO measurement campaign of almost 20 years.
Scientists have applied liquid-metal synthesis to piezoelectrics, advancing future flexible, wearable electronics, and biosensors drawing their power from the body's movements. Piezoelectric materials such as atomically-thin tin-monosulfide (SnS) convert mechanical forces or movement into electrical energy. Along with their inherent flexibility, this makes them candidates for flexible nanogenerators in wearable electronics or internal, self-powered biosensors.
Lopinavir is a drug against HIV, hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and rheumatism. Until recently, both drugs were regarded as potential agents in the fight against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Researchers have now discovered that the concentration of the two drugs in the lungs of Covid-19 patients is not sufficient to fight the virus.
As we age, the immune system gradually becomes impaired. One aspect of this impairment is chronic inflammation in the elderly, which means that the immune system is constantly active and sends out inflammatory substances. Such chronic inflammation is associated with multiple age-related diseases including arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, and impaired immune responses to infection. One of the questions in ageing research is whether chronic inflammation is a cause of aging, or a consequence of the aging process itself? Scientists have found evidence suggesting that increased inflammation causes the aging process to speed up, and that there is a fine balance between maintaining immune system function and longevity.
NASA’s Parker Solar Probe has captured unique images of comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) and its two tails. C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) was discovered on March 27, 2020 by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission. The comet’s nucleus is about 5 km (3 miles) across and is covered with sooty, dark particles. C/2020 F3 [...]
Paleontologists have found and described the first nearly complete skeleton of Ankylorhiza tiedemani, an extinct large dolphin that lived about 24 million years ago (Oligocene epoch). With a body length of 4.8 m (15.7 feet), Ankylorhiza tiedemani was the largest member of the group Odontoceti (toothed whales) during the Oligocene - a size not surpassed [...]
Patients with COVID-19 who have an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) experience more severe strokes, have worse functional outcomes and are more likely to die of stroke than AIS patients who do not have COVID-19. The wide range of complications associated with COVID-19 likely explain the worse outcomes.
A baby girl in Texas -- born prematurely to a mother with COVID-19 -- is the strongest evidence to date that intrauterine (in the womb) transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can occur, according to a new report.
Some mandarin fish species (Sinipercidae) are pure fish-eaters, which feed exclusively on living juvenile fish - also of their own species. A research team has described the genome of four mandarin fish species and thus also identified genes for cannibalistic eating behavior. Knowledge of the connections between the genome and feeding behavior is of interest for sustainable aquaculture.
Astronomers succeeded in detecting 12 stellar flare phenomena on AD Leonis. One of these flares was 20 times larger than those emitted by our own sun, categorizing it a 'superflare'. Subsequent data analysis presents new insight into these explosive phenomena.
This is one of the first comprehensive looks at lung cells using a technology called single-cell RNA sequencing. Instead of examining a mash-up of many cells from a tissue sample, single-cell sequencing allowed researchers in this study to closely examine the individual cells that make up the lungs; to identify their function, and ultimately understand the molecular changes that may be driving the disease.