Lab animals deficient in vitamin D crave and become dependent on opioids, which is curbed when normal levels of the vitamin are restored. Human health records indicate that people with low vitamin D are more likely to use and misuse opioids. Study results suggest a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in fighting opioid addiction.
A new imaging technique has the potential to detect neurological disorders -- such as Alzheimer's disease -- at their earliest stages, enabling physicians to diagnose and treat patients more quickly. Termed super-resolution, the imaging methodology combines position emission tomography (PET) with an external motion tracking device to create highly detailed images of the brain.
An international team of ornithologists has described and named two new species of the warbler genus Cisticola using museum specimens collected half a century ago in Tanzania. Cisticola is a genus of small insect-eating birds in the Old World passerine family Cisticolidae. Established by the German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829, it contains over [...]
ESO has released a beautiful photo taken by the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the spiral galaxy Messier 99. Messier 99 resides at a distance of about 42 million light-years in the constellation of Coma Berenices. This galaxy was discovered, together with the neighboring Messier [...]
Two major problems that limit the resolution and interpretation of electron microscopy images are lens aberrations and multiple scattering. Cornell University’s Professor David Muller and colleagues from the United States, Switzerland and Germany overcame these issues with a computational imaging technique called ptychography. Using sophisticated 3D reconstruction algorithms and an electron microscope pixel array detector [...]
A team of ornithologists from the American Bird Conservancy and Cornell University’s Lab of Ornithology has captured the first-ever clear images and recorded the call of the Urich’s tyrannulet (Phyllomyias urichi). This is only the fourth time the species has been scientifically documented since it was first described in 1899. The Urich’s tyrannulet is a [...]
A team of researchers from the Carnegie Institution for Science, RMIT University and the Australian National University has synthesized a new form of silicon with a hexagonal structure - 4H hexagonal silicon (4H-Si) - using a recently-discovered single-crystalline allotrope of silicon, Si24. Silicon can take different crystalline forms, called allotropes, in the same way that [...]
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has produced an outstanding image of the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 4680. NGC 4680 is located approximately 98 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo. The galaxy was discovered by the English astronomer John Herschel on May 27, 1835. Otherwise known as IRAS 12443-1121 or LEDA 43118, it has [...]
In a new study published in the journal Cell Metabolism, researchers took a closer look at the functions of different sensory neurons in the control center of the vagus nerve, which is one of the biggest nerves connecting our gut and brain. “In the control center of the vagus nerve, the so-called nodose ganglion, various [...]
Pairing sky-mapping algorithms with advanced immunofluorescence imaging of cancer biopsies, researchers developed a robust platform to guide immunotherapy by predicting which cancers will respond to specific therapies targeting the immune system.
Researchers have published a first- of-its-kind study that shows that near-infrared (NIR) spectrum cameras can help python hunters more effectively track down these invasive snakes, especially at night.
Leaders who encourage their employees to learn on the job and speak up with ideas and suggestions for change have teams that are more effective and resilient in the face of unexpected situations, according to new research.
3D tumors that disintegrate within a few days thanks to the action of a well-known omega-3 (DHA, found mainly in fish) -- this is a promising discovery. Hungry for fatty acids, tumor cells in acidosis gorge themselves on DHA but are unable to store it correctly and literally poison themselves. The result? They die.
Pine Island Glacier's ice shelf lost about one-fifth of its total area between 2017 and 2020, in three dramatic collapses. Meanwhile the glacier sped up by 12 percent. The rest of the ice shelf, the authors say, could disappear much sooner than previous studies had suggested.
Professional astronomers and citizen scientists from the NASA-funded Planet Hunters TESS project have discovered a two-planet system around the bright Sun-like star HD 152843. HD 152843 is a G-dwarf star located about 352 light-years away in the northern constellation of Hercules. Otherwise known as TOI-2319 or SAO 84691, the star is about the same mass [...]
A giant star called VVV-WIT-08 exhibited a smooth, eclipse-like drop in brightness to a depth of 97% in 2012; minimum brightness occurred in April 2012 and the total event duration was a few hundred days, according to an analysis of data from the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV), a project using the [...]
Paleoclimatologists have precisely reconstructed monthly sea surface temperatures at around 50 °N latitude from fossil shells of bivalve mollusks that lived during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous epoch) greenhouse period, about 78 million years ago. “We used to think that when the climate warmed like it did in the Cretaceous period, the time of the dinosaurs, [...]